Hajj in the Qur’an
What Does Hajj Mean & What Is It Really All About?
The Arabic word hajj means pilgrimage, and hajj is conventionally understood as a rite that the God instituted via prophet Muhammad. This is the view from Traditionalist Islamic doctrine; it propagates that this pilgrimage is a mandatory religious duty for followers of the Islamic religion to undertake at least once in their lifetime, if they have the means and wherewithal.
This pilgrimage is an annual, tradition-oriented pilgrimage undertaken by Muslims to the city of Mecca, which is located in modern day Saudi Arabia, with the temple of al masjid al haram being the destination, and the kaaba in particular; the kaaba being posited in the midst of al masjid al haram. The kaaba is regarded by Muslims as the “house of God”. It is believed by Muslims that both this temple and the kaaba was constructed by the prophet, Ibrāhim (English: Abraham), but was decommissioned until being reinstituted by the prophet in the 7th century AD.
The pilgrimage or hajj is said to be one of the five Islamic pillars of faith. The rites performed at this pilgrimage are said to take place over a period of several days during the final month of the Islamic calendar (Arabic: Dhu al-Hijjah). The rites performed at this pilgrimage range from circumambulating seven times around the Kaaba; to trotting back and forth seven times between two hills which their doctrines name as ṣafā and marwah; to drinking water from a well called zamzam; to stoning obelisks or phallic statues that are alleged to symbolise the devil. Shaving of the heads and animal sacrifice also feature on that list of things to do. Once the pilgrimage and rites have been concluded, a three day celebration of festivities called Eid al-Adha commences.
What Are Today’s Objectives?
Before outlining today’s objectives, I must make you aware that the Qur’an rejects the organised religion of Islam, rendering it a later invented religion (for more insight, you may read my article titled Islamic Religion & Hadith Literature).
Since the organised religion of Islam, with all its doctrines that include doctored versions of the Qur’an, are regarded by the Qur’an as both extraneous and erroneous, in today’s subject of study then, I will be examining hajj in light of the Qur’an, meaning that I will not be focusing on the subject as it is viewed through the prism of organised religion.
The objective of this article is to establish:
- What was the nature and purpose of this pilgrimage?
- Who does it concern?
- Is it true that the pilgrimage is a rite?
So that I may accomplish these objectives, I have split this article into 4 sections.
In first section I will answer the question of whether the Qur’an is Obsolete.
And in section two through to four, I will examine chapters and verses of the Qur’an wherein the Arabic word hajj occurs. These sections will consist of citations of the relevant chapters and verses for the purposes of extracting key facts and information from them. The aim is to establish the answers to those three questions by presenting you with the Qur’an narrative, a narrative free-from any credulous or extraneous ideas.
Section 1: Are Parts Of The Qur’an Obsolescent?
By obsolescent, I mean outdated, insofar as they are no longer relevant or applicable to the modern day human.
The answers to this question is a resounding yes.
Many passages of the Qur’anic text are infelicitous outside of contexts to which they are subjects of. We are 1,400 years too late to find the means to both envisage and delineate the confluences between our our lives and those passages of the Qur’an that are primarily both addressed and dovetailed to the people upon whom it was revealed.
The Qur’an was sent down upon a prophet of the Creator, Most High. It was during his lifetime some 1,400 years ago during 7th century Arabia when this revelation was inspired to him. Therefore, any events and narratives that we read of in the Qur’an, were a concern of prophet Muhammad and his people – not us today in the modern day and age. The medium of the message had to exist at some time, place or another, which best justifies this.
The Qur’an contains passages of battle; debate; social unrest; emigration; as well as numerous other interpersonal and cultural affairs of the people during that era. I am not telling you that the entirety of the Qur’an is not null and void; I am telling you that the aforesaid passages and others of the like are obsolescent, except insofar as the Law & Philosophy of the Most High is concerned. (Remember, the Law and Philosophy form part of what in the Qur’an is called a dīn; a system).
There are universal applications of the many postulates that concern ethics, morality and metaphysics – but anything sociologically related (excluding any ethical, moral, epistemological and metaphysical overlapping’s), are simply miscellaneous or ancillary details that serve to underpin the narratives, and it are those narratives that were revealed upon the prophet to teach us something slightly more esoteric or important than say the cultural customs or current events of the people alive during that era – the Qur’an is not a history book.
The narratives of the Doctrine are its cloak. The simple look only at the garment—that is, upon the narrative of the Doctrine ; more they know not. The instructed, however, see not merely the cloak, but what the cloak covers.The Zohar, iii., 152 ; Franck, 119.
Here is a classical syllogism: all Greeks are men, all men are mortal therefore all Greeks are mortal. In like fashion, let us take the case of a judgement made upon a man in the Qur’an. Ibrāhim was under Z circumstance, Ibrāhim responded with X actions, the God judged his case by rewarding him with Y; the judgement of the God is irrevocable, therefore if we find ourselves under Z circumstance and respond with X actions, the logic informs that we too would be rewarded with Y.
This analogy is an elementary example, and it is without a doubt that one must seek to know and understand the symbolic value of x, y, and z. Because if one does not, then to do x simply because you read it somewhere in a book, especially when you are under a different set of circumstances, then this action may very well end up being a waste of your energy, if not a regret. The point is, if it is not relevant nor necessary and appropriate to do something, it does not matter how true or good a thing may be – gojis berries are healthy, yet it would be foolish to eat 5kg of them in one go. There is a time and place for everything as it is said in the book of Ecclesiastes.
In the Qur’an, verses 33:21, 60:4, and 60:6 it is said that the messenger of the Qur’an, Ibrāhim and prophets of old, are good models for us to follow. That does not mean we are to unthinkingly emulate or imitate what is reported to us of them. Particular narrations of the prophets pertain to the moral, ethical, or perhaps even metaphysical thought, deed, or belief of the said men; these models are seated within particular narratives in the Qur’an. It is your task as the reader to seek out the parable, trope, metaphor, moral and philosophical postulate, which, when becomes manifest as it is stated in verse 75:18 of the Qur’an, the manifest fact is subsequently established as a decree or law that forms part of this dīn or system of the Creator, Most High.
That way, you may come to learn of the irrevocable judgement of the Creator, Most High. That way, you will equip yourself with the knowhow and fuller understanding of the intended message; that way, you remain operating under the continuity of reality (bearing in mind that it is a fallacy to take context-dependant verses out context).
If you have received any formal education, you would have been taught literary devices, such as the parable, allegory, metaphor, simile. We have many at our disposal. I am saying that we should be seeking them out where they explicitly exist. It is within the archetypes laid out for us within the Qur’an or motifs such as battle, whereby we may learn the parable, trope, or universal application of the Most High’s judgement.
One of our major adversaries where it concerns studying scripture, is organised religion, and in our case, this adversary is the organised religion of Islam with all its doctrines and devotees. Organised religion preys upon the mentally weak and ignorant, teaching the general masses on how to think, what to think and why to think that particular way, particularly where it concerns any interface with its doctrines. Its overlords have ensured that the doctrines it claims monopoly rites over are concocted with instructions and manuals entailing how to read it, understand it, where to read it, why to read it, and what to do with it.
The Islamic religion, has ensued this to the furthest ends possible. Those devotees to this organised religion have embedded within their psyches, intimations and suggestions, precepts and habits which, even if one was to formally renounce his membership to such religion, the aforesaid systemic indoctrination remains with him. Moreover, the Muslims are programmed with this delusional hermeneutical literalistic interpretation of their doctrines, most notably, the Qur’an.
Despite the fact I am heavily am opposed to the work of Karl Marx, he did make a good point when he said: “religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions”; and “religion is the opium of the people”. Karl Marx, a man who did not himself believe in what he preached, to the degree where organised religion is concerned, is correct here.
The Islamic religion offloads its dogma into the psyche of its “devout” follower. It requires you to enter into somewhat of a neurotic stagnant state of mind; to suspend any cognitive functions except inasmuch as they operate in strict accordance with its directives. Subsequently, this adversary manages to transport your mind into an phantasmal 7th century Arabian culture and society wherein it demands that you to wish to live – unsurprisingly it works, but the Qur’an cannot quench the thirst, thus the real sales pitch begins as these latterly invented doctrines, such as the hadith literature, are sold to you wholesale to replace the Qur’an.
Dogma is defined as a principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true – all religious literature or doctrine, is dogmatic. This means the literature or doctrines in question do not concern reality, truth and fact, nor objective morality – therefore there cannot be any illumination nor light at the end of the tunnel.
Their example, is the example of one who kindled a fire, then, when it illuminated around about him the God put out their light, leaving them in darkness so they do not see. Deaf, dumb, blind, they shall not return.2:17
Dogmatic and literalistic interpretations have found to be heavily associated with mental disorders such as autism. This brings me onto discuss those extreme fundamentalist religious fanatics who misuse and abuse the Qur’an to justify their predetermined objectives, namely violence, murder, and oppression in the name of ‘Allah’. Little do these individuals know, yet seldom do they care, that the passages of the Qur’anic text in which they quote is exclusively addressed to a specific time, era, people, and place – they are obsolete.
The exact same principle applies to a preponderance of the Qur’an, yet seldom does anyone seem to care or notice.
The Qur’an on the contrary, is a revelation which appeals to reality – the reality in which you inhabit, it requires you to reason, reflect, ponder, and apply your God-given faculties to it.
In fact, a large preponderance of the Qur’anic text exclusively addresses the contemporaries alive during the midst of revelation, and not the latter generations. This phenomenon pertains to textual or linguistic features of the Qur’an which anyone may learn if he has the tools and wherewithal to access the Qur’anic Arabic.
God makes visible toMorals & Dogma of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (p. 15)
men His will in events; an obscure text, written in a mysterious language. Men make their
translations of it forthwith, hasty, incorrect, full of faults, omissions, and misreadings. We
see so short a way along the arc of the great circle! Few minds comprehend the Divine
tongue. The most sagacious, the most calm, the most profound, decipher the hieroglyphs
slowly; and when they arrive with their text, perhaps the need has long gone by; there are
already twenty translations in the public square–the most incorrect being, as of course, the
most accepted and popular. From each translation, a party is born; and from each
misreading, a faction. Each party believes or pretends that it has the only true text, and
each faction believes or pretends that it alone possesses the light. Moreover, factions are
blind men, who aim straight, errors are excellent projectiles, striking skillfully, and with all
the violence that springs from false reasoning, wherever a want of logic in those who
defend the right, like a defect in a cuirass, makes them vulnerable.
There are dangers inseparable from symbolism, which afford an impressive lesson inMorals & Dogma of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (p.43)
regard to the similar risks attendant on the use of language. The imagination, called in to
assist the reason, usurps its place or leaves its ally helplessly entangled in its web. Names
which stand for things are confounded with them; the means are mistaken for the end; the
instrument of interpretation for the object; and thus symbols come to usurp an
independent character as truths and persons.
Example Of Four Qur’anic Hermeneutical Principles
- The Qur’an declares it was sent down in a plain Arabic tongue; and that we may use reason (see: 12:2; 16:103; 22:16, 43:3; 44:58; 47:24). We may apply reason to the vast richness of the Arabic Qur’an. This does not mean reason becomes the arbiter and sole determinant, but it is a tool that we are to use to access the intended meaning. The Qur’an states that the God has appointed abomination for those who do not use reason (see: 10:100)
- The Qur’an consists of explicit verses; signs; proofs – and likenesses (see 3:7). In other words, there are verses that are context dependant (e.g. pilgrimage), whereas other verses are context independent such as “there is no god but the God“. To explain that a little, we do not require context to explicate the statement there is no god but the God. Whereas with hajj, it is simply the backstory which serves to build us a narrative which is representative or symbolic of a series of conditions, circumstances, scenarios, of which the essential characteristics and depictions are something that anybody of any time or place may identify themselves with. It is such narratives that we are to seek the parable or principle lesson for example, not the literal storyline that is not addressed to us nor is concerned us in the modern day and age. In verse 3:7 it says only those possessed of insight or understanding, and knowledge, will understand and take heed. And in verse 2:26 it says the Creator, Most High misleads or misguides via the exact same examples which others are guided by.
This is a community that has come and gone. It has what it has earned, and you have what you earn, and you will not be questioned about what they did.2:134
Verse 2:134 concerns practices of former people. Those to whom the Qur’an was revealed to, were exhorted to not seek to revive nor concern themselves with the practices of former generations.
I surmise based on the aforesaid explicit statement, that the people of today’s era are no exception, and that we too should not seek to revive the practices or concern ourselves with the practices of former generations, which mat just so happen include the prophet and his people.
That concludes section 1.
Section 1: Chapter 2
And they said: “be Judeans or Nazarenes to be rightly guided”. Say thou: “No, the religion of Ibrāhim, inclining, and he was not of the idolaters”. Say: “we believed in the God and what is revealed to us, and what was revealed to Ibrāhim and Is’māʿīl and Is’ḥāq and Yaʿqūb and the grandsons and what was revealed to Mūsā and ʿīsā and the prophets from their Lord; we make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we are submitted.”
So, if they believed in the like if that which you have believed in, then indeed, they have been rightly guided. But if they turn away, they are in schism. And the God will suffice you against them, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing. The immersion of the God – and who is better than the God to immerse? And to Him are we serving.” Say thou: “do you argue with us concerning the God while He is our Lord and your Lord? And to us be our works, and to you be your works, and we are to Him sincere.
Or do you say that Ibrāhim and Is’māʿīl and Is’ḥāq and Yaʿqūb and the grandsons were Judeans or Nazarenes”
Say thou: “are you better knowing or is the God?” And who is more unjust than he who conceals a testimony he has from the God?” And the God is not unaware of what you do. This is a community that has come and gone. It has what it has earned, and you have what you earn, and you will not be questioned about what they did.2:135-141
- The actual starting point of this narrative began at verse 40. Verses 135-141 treats of a series of dialogue and debate between the prophet and both the Jews and Nazarenes. This dialogue and debate concerned the doctrine and system of the One, the Absolute, which in its purest form as delivered by the prophet, negates the latter inventions by both the Judeans (Jews) and Nazarenes.
- The sole duty of the prophet here was to warn the children of Israel. (A narrative that exclusively concerned those Judeans (Jews) and Nazarenes).
- This set of verses sets us up for the concurrent narrative which is to pick up and succeed in the following verse.
The foolish among the people will say: “what has turned them from their focal-point which they were on?” Say: “to the God belongs the east and the west, He guides whom He wills to a straight path.” And thus we made you an intermediary community so that you will be witnesses over the people and the messenger will be a witness to you.
And We made not the course which you used to face except that We might make it evident the one who follows the messenger from the one who turns back on his heels. And indeed, it was certainly difficult except for those whom the God guided. And the God will not let your faith go to waste. Indeed, the God is to the people, kind, merciful.
Indeed, We see you turning your face toward the heaven, so We will turn you towards the focal-point of the sacred temple (الْحَرَامِ الْحَرَامِ), and wherever you are turn your faces in its direction. And indeed, those who were given the record know that it is the truth from their Lord. The God is not unaware of what they do.
And even if you brought to those given the record every proof, never would they follow your focal-point and neither you will not follow their focal-point, and neither do they follow the focal-point of one another. And if you follow their vain desires away from what has come to you of the knowledge, indeed you would surely be the wrongdoers.
Those to whom We gave the kitāb, recognise it just as they recognise their sons. And indeed a group of them certainly conceal the truth, and they know. The truth is from your Lord, so do not be among the doubters, and for everyone is a direction he turns toward, so race to the good. Wherever that you will be, the God will bring you together. Indeed, the God is over every thing powerful.
And from wherever you start forth, turn your face in the direction of the sacred temple. And indeed, it is surely the truth from your Lord. And the God is not unaware of what you do. And from wherever you go out, turn your faces toward the sacred temple. And wherever you may be, turn your faces toward it in order that the people will not have any argument against you, except for those of them who do wrong among them, so fear them not but fear Me, and so that I may complete My favor upon you and that you may be guided.2:142-150
- Verses 142-150 concern the change of focal-point or centre of activity and interest that was instituted during the life of the prophet.
- The focal point is declared in verse 149 to be al masjid al haram.
- The prophet, is still engaging the Judeans (Jews) and Nazarenes. The Judeans and Nazarenes’ were the primary target audience for the prophet, and besides the prophet himself, they were amongst the first to submit and believe. This best explains why the battles fought in the Qur’an were with the Judeans and Nazarenes’.
- The submitted believers are exhorted to face toward this focal point of theirs, the focal-point being the sum and substance of the destination for the emigration and pilgrimage of the believers which is substantiated by the following verses to succeed the present, and, which is to commence in latter chapters of the Qur’an.
- At such point, beside the parable, moral and principle lessons, and philosophical postulates; it is self-evident that these verses address those alive during the midst of revelation and have no direct relevance to us today.
- In verses 151-157, we read of key communications from the God unto the submitted believers.
- In verses 154-155 we read: “and do not say of those who are killed for the cause of the God they are dead. No, they are alive, but you do not perceive. And certainly, We will try you with something of fear, hunger, and loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give good news to the patient ones.” This passage was sent down as a warning and incitation to prepare for what is to come (i.e. the war or battle, killing, tribulations, hardships; all of which we learn later on in the narrative). And, the afore citation does not address us today – the universal application of this verse resides in the fact that the God is in control of all things, and that whatever comes our way is according to His will, therefore the primal lesson for us is to submit, serve and fear Him.
- A major, both salient and pertinent point to take heed of is the vital significance and importance of verses 40-134 in chapter. They all concern the pilgrimage and emigration of the children of Israel. It concerned their exodus out from the land of Egypt and into their later conquered territories. These lands then became nations for the submitted believers. I believe these verses precede the relevant narrative for two main reasons: 1, the children of Israel are the prophets primary target audience. 2: the prophet was sent to warn the Judeans’ and Nazarenes’, including their ruling elite and executing what some call “the God protocol” – a point worthy to take note of because those who rule us today have direct lineage to these earlier people, but of whom they have parted ways in terms of their doctrine, system, and duties to the Creator, Most High. Where this ties into today’s subject matter and the key extracts from these particular verses, resides in the persistent subjects of narration being the Judeans and Nazarenes’; some of whom believed and heeded warning, and later came to join the prophet on a hajj or pilgrimage from Jerusalem to this new land.
- These current events we read of cannot be relevant to us in the modern day and age (i.e. current events such as pilgrimage, emigration, the focal point, and war, to state a few).
Indeed, the ṣafā and the marwah are from the symbols of the God. So whoever makes pilgrimage to the house or visits, no blame is upon him that he walks between them. And whoever does good voluntarily, then indeed the God is appreciative, knowing.2:158
- In this verse, both the ṣafā and marwah are described as symbols of the God.
- These two symbols are depicted to be situated at a particular location upon which the prophet and his people are to pass upon arrival of their pilgrimage. I say this because there is no indication as to whether the believers began emigrating as pilgrims yet – this is a point that I am unaware of.
- Today, those two symbols are no significance to us – furthermore, there are no details as to what they were nor where they are located; therefore it is safe to say that both of these symbols were simply a matter known to the people alive during the midst of revelation – a point I would like you to bear in mind because this is prove to be an all too reoccurring phenomenon, in that there are many details absent from the Qur’an which indicate to us that such information is mentioned for the people of that era and place but not us today.
- These two symbols, unequivocally served as symbols of the God’s presence or existence or dominance over the believers affairs, and not something I nor you can relate to today. However, if we just wake up and smell the coffee, arise and get active within the world, then perhaps we too may be introduced to many other symbols of Most High? That is, if this indeed be an aim of yours. If not, of course it most certainly will not come to be if we spend time glossing over such passages seeking to unthinkingly idolise the said men in the narratives as though they were of any more special and significance to the Creator, Most High than yourself and I.
- Verses 159-185 concern the Law giving from the God, as well as many philosophical postulates.
They ask you about the new moons, say thou: “they are measurements of time for the people and the pilgrimage”. And it is not virtue that you approach houses by the backs thereof, but virtue is whoso is prudent of the God, but approach the houses from the gates. And be prudent of the God so that you might be successful.2:189
- In this verse, the prophet is asked questions concerning the new moons to which he responds with two answers. The first answer is that they are measurements of time for the people (Arabic word). The second answer is that they are for calculation of the pilgrimage (such information is not disclosed to us, therefore it can safely be presumed that the pilgrimage is not a rite incumbent upon the submitted believers of the modern day and age. If I am incorrect here, then this information can only be located in extraneous literature, to which I then call the Qur’an to account for the clear discrepancies which such assumptions would ensue due to the fact that the Qur’an itself proclaims to be a complete, consistent, and sufficient scripture.
- It is unclear as to whether the pilgrimage has commenced or not at this stage, although the afore questions that were posed to the prophet, revolved around key events regarding this major event that was to take place within the near future.
- The prophet is speaking onto his people, not us today nor the latter generations. The entire series of events is circumstantial and applicable to the prophet and those with him.
And fight in the path of the God those who fight you and do not transgress. Indeed, the God does not love the transgressors. And kill them wherever you gain ascendency over them and expel them wherever they expel you, and the tribulation is worse than killing. And do not fight them near the sacred temple until they fight you in it. Then if they fight you, kill them. Such is the reward for the denier. Then if they cease, indeed the God is forgiving, merciful.
And fight them until there is no tribulation and the system belongs to the God. Then if they cease, then no hostility except against the wrongdoers. The inviolable moon is for the inviolable moon, and for all violations are legal requital. Then whosoever transgressed against you, transgress against him just as he transgressed against you, but be prudent of the God, and know that the God is with the prudent.
And spend in the path of the God and do not cast your hands into the ruin. And do good, indeed the God loves the doers of good.2:190-195
- These verses concern war and the believer’s military strategy as they presumably began to encroach upon their focal point wherein their enemies occupied the territory of.
- Their objective, according to these verses was to fight the enemy until the enemy was subdued and there was no longer any tribulations from their enemy.
- This is a pilgrimage that occurred over 1,400 years ago to which the objectives and aims of, again, dare I bleed your eyes to death, have clearly got absolutely nothing to do with me nor you. It would be foolish to perform dress rehearsals or attempt to audition the pilgrimage as if this was some Hollywood script to re-enact the exodus of Moses – but why then do Muslims do this with the pilgrimage? In the Torah, similar motifs and themes play out.
We do not undervalue the importance of any Truth. We utter no word that can beMorals & Dogma of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry
deemed irreverent by any one of any faith. We do not tell the Moslem that it is only
important for him to believe that there is but one God, and unessential whether
Mahomet was His prophet. We do not tell the Hebrew that the Messiah whom he expects
was born in Bethlehem two thousand years ago; and that he is a heretic because he
will not so believe. And as little do we tell the sincere Christian that Jesus of Nazareth was
but a man like us, or His history but the unreal revival of an older legend.
The Traditionalist or Muslim, the “Christian”, and the “Jew” or “Hebrew” often focus upon the messenger, not message; the latter inventions or fabrications by mankind, not the truth from the Creator.
Regarding the sacred month, I cite the footnote of Sam Gerrans under verse 194 of his translation The Qur’an: A Complete Revelation:
A month wherein there is no killing (either between factions, or of land-based animals). That al shar al haram is a period defined by men by treaty is borne out by 9:1-5. The term occurs also at 2:217, 5:2 and 5:97. Nowhere in the Qur’an are months mentioned in this regard. The Traditionalist, in the other hand, claims to know exactly what these months are called and when they occur. If the claim is that here is what is meant is an inviolable moon with regard to the pilgrimage then, clearly, such months were known to those alive at the time of revelation. These details are not found in the Qur’an because later generations have no need for them – (I omit a sentence of Sam’s) – we have no need for such details in the same way we have no need now to know precisely on what spot Mūsā met with Fir’awn and his sorcerers. Such events are histories the points of which are today general and moral, not specific and to be replicated – unless one insists upon binding himself to a religion found nowhere in the Qur’an. The point contained here which can be applied today is that peace treaties covering periods of time may be made and should be kept.The Qur’an: A Complete Revelation
There is much speculation and ideas floating about regarding the sacred month mentioned in verse 194. The truth is that it is treated in the text to exist for itself as a one off; a month which exclusively concerned the prophet and his people. I exhort you, the reader, to not seek after hadith (narrations, reports, stories, tales nor sayings) to fill in the gaps in your mind; gaps that exist due to preconceived ideas and notions that I assume derive from-or are influenced by the organised religion of Islam.
And complete the pilgrimage and the visit for the God, and if you are held back, then what is easy of the requirement. And do not shave your heads until the requirement reaches its destination. Then whoever is sick among you, or he has a injury of his head, then the redemption is fasting or charity or sacrifice, then when you are secure whoever prefers the attendance to the pilgrimage then what is easy of the requirement. But whoever has not the means – then a fast for three days during the pilgrimage and seven when you return; this is ten days in all. That is for those whose people are not present at the sacred temple. And be prudent of the God and know that the God is severe in retribution.
The pilgrimage is on moons known, then whoever undertakes the pilgrimage, therein is no sexual activity and no disobedience and no quarrelling during the pilgrimage. And whatever you do of good, the God knows it. And take provision, indeed, the best provision is the prudence, and be prudent of Me, O men of insight.
There is no sin upon you that you seek the bounty from your Lord. And when you depart from Arafat, then remember the God near the sacred symbols.2:196-199
- These verses concern the rites of the submitted believers which is confirmed in verse 200: “and when you have concluded your rites then remember the God like the remembrance of your fathers or with stronger remembrance.”
- The Arabic word umrah means attendance, and the following is an excerpt from The Qur’an: A Complete Revelation: Arabic: ‘ayn mīm rā. This bound occurs only twice (here and later in the same verse). The Traditionalist ascribed a highly specific, cultic value to the word (i.e. that of out-of-season hajj – the details of which he claims also to know). The Traditionalist’s claim can demonstrate no purchase upon the text – a fact which he indirectly acknowledges by dint of his a priori acceptance of (and insistence upon) an entirely different literature. I have rendered in accordance with the word’s non-sectarian and – in the words of Lane (p. 2207) – ‘primary signification (which, to be fair to the Traditionalist, is in basic alignment with his claims over the word – minus the dubious specificity he wishes to ascribe to it, and for us to accept at his hand).”
- Those who would not permanently remain within the land after the pilgrimage to complete their rites, were to resort to an attendance (i.e. umrah) before leaving for whichever reason that prevented them from remaining. The attendance is a one-time act that concerned the relevant people, not you and I. And these rites were to be upheld at the sacred temple, hence those who were unable to complete the pilgrimage were given the alternative of a redemption.
- The fact of there is an option between attending and completing the pilgrimage can be consolidated with another fact that emigration is a key feature in this singular narrative that has been built for us. In chapter 4:75-106, there is a rescue mission that is narrated to us as the believers then return to help their brethren who remained behind (i.e. those who visited or attended then left, and also those who never departed with the prophet from the outset). This is not something I have time to expound upon here in today’s article, but I have an aim to take a look into this in future, God willing.
- None of this entire narrative is addressed to mankind, therefore none of the rites mentioned are to be replicated nor revived, unless an explicit directive can be identified. I say this with such confidence, because you have been given no authority by the Lord of All Mankind to revive and replicate something that has not been addressed to you, then in truth, you are inventing and following your own desires.
- These verses regard the law giving, the moral law, and other philosophical teachings by the prophet. As for Moses, he too imparted teachings to his people during the exodus.
Fighting is ordained upon you, though it is hateful to you, but perhaps you hate a thing, and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And the God knows while you know not.
They ask you concerning the sacred month and fighting during it. Say thou: “fighting therein is grave, but hindering from the path of the God, and disbelief in Him, and the sacred temple, and driving out the people from it is graver in the sight of the God, and the tribulation is worse than killing”.
And they will not cease to fight you until they turn you away from your system if they are able. And whoso among you turns away from his system and dies a denier, for these, their works are vain and, in this world, and in hereafter – and those are the companions of the fire wherein they shall abide forever.
Indeed, those who believed and emigrated and strove in the path of the God, these hope for the mercy of the God. And the God is merciful, forgiving.2:216-218
- In verse 2:216, fighting is declared to be ordained. It is at this point in revelation when the believers finally edge closer upon their enemies.
- In verse 217, they ask the prophet more questions about the sacred month. It is said back to the questioners that fighting during it is grave, but forsaking the path of the God, disbelieving in it, the sacred temple, and the expulsion of its people is worse. It is repeated that the tribulation is worse than killing, and the implication of this statement gives approval for the submitted believers to kill or slay whoever fights them during this month.
- In these verses, emigration is mentioned for the first time. And emigration had to be mentioned because that is what this entire narrative is all about, emigration via a pilgrimage! The submitted believers were pilgrims with the prophet. This was a one-off pilgrimage to a new land whereby the prophet and those with him sought to establish a new nation founded upon the word and Law of God. Again, this sparks even further correspondence with the pilgrimage of Mūsā and the children of Israīl mentioned earlier in this chapter.
- In verses 2:243-253, the prophet recites a revelation onto his people regarding the children of Israīl and they overcome their enemies in battle and war,
For the remainder of the chapter, pilgrimage, emigration, and war, is absent from narrative. It is in chapter 3, 4 and 8, where emigration is mentioned. It is not until chapter 9 where emigration, war and pilgrimage are mentioned together forming part of one narrative.
The pilgrimage was the journey of emigration for the prophet and those with him. Those with the prophet were previously Judeans (Jews), Sabaeans and Nazarenes (see: 2:62). The objective of the prophet was delivering warning, glad tidings, and guidance to the children of Israel. The prophet then set off with those of the children of Israel and those who believed to undertake a pilgrimage away from the idolaters and deniers, onto a new land with the sole intent and purpose of establishing a new nation under the God. As we read in later chapters of the Qur’an: the Torah, Tanakh, and Gospels played just as an instrumental part in establishing this new nation as the Qur’an. Latter inventions by the Arabs and Persians such as the hadith literature are just as extraneous and erroneous as the Talmud, parts of the Bible and other inventions by mankind that have been injected into the former revelations. There is no Qur’an alone community – there should not be one. There only exists submitters in the eyes of our Lord Most High (see: 22:78). A believer according to the Qur’an, is simply a person who believed in the Qur’an when having received its contents and messages. According to chapter 2 of the Qur’an, the pilgrimage and emigration exclusively applied to those submitted believers of the 7th century AD – these are not events that we are to reenact in a blind and misguided devotion to the Creator, Most High, when in fact it is not the Creator, Most High, but rather those men whom one foolishly places upon a pedestal. Hajj, according to chapter to at least, cannot be a sacred appointed rite for people of latter generations to undertake.
The passages which concern the pilgrimage, emigration, and war, are obsolete except insofar as the principle or moral lesson and philosophical postulate is concerned.
Section 2: Chapter 3, 4 & 8
In this section, I will be examining key passages that concern the pilgrimage. I will omit passages which do bear direct concern to the present subject matter, but I do encourage you to read them for yourself.
Indeed, the first house set up for the people was the one at Bakkah, blessed, and a guidance for all mankind. In it were clear proofs of the station for Ibrāhim, and whoever entered it was safe. And to the God from the people was a pilgrimage to the house for one who was able to find a way. And whoever denied, the God was free from need from all mankind.3:96-97
- Verses 1-96 of chapter 3 are addressed to the children of Israel, the Judeans (Jews) and Nazarenes’, not Arabs, pagans, or polytheists, nor any other group. Those verses consist of an array of postulates concerning doctrinal matters; most notably the falsehood ascribed unto the Most High.
- Verses 3:96-97, as is other passages in the narrative, are grammatically composed in the past tense. No claim can be made for them to correlate to the sacred temple (al masjid al haram).
- Verse 103 demonstrates to the reader that some amongst the Judeans (Jews), Nazarenes’, and Sabaeans had believed, thus the command was for them to not become divided after straightforward evidence had come to them (i.e. the Qur’an). And in verse 105 it warns the believers of dividing over the knowledge that had been sent down to them as it were in times past.
- In verse 3:121-129, we are informed about a battle that had taken place to which the believers had won.
- Verse 3:130-194 regard war, current events and affairs, and many philosophical postulates and moral or principle laws or lessons.
Then their Lord responded to them, I will not let go to waste the works of any who work among you whether you be male or female, you are alike. So those who emigrated, and were expelled from their homes, and were harmed in the path of the God, and fought and were killed, surely, I will remove from them their evil deeds, and I will reward them with gardens beneath which rivers flow, a reward from the God, and with the God is the best of rewards.3:195
- Most translators of the Qur’an ignore the fact that many passages of its text are written in the past tense. Regarding emigration in verse 195, it does not say emigrate, but emigrated, and at this stage of revelation the believers had completed their pilgrimage or emigration.
They wish that you would deny as they denied so that you would be alike. So do not take from them allies until they emigrate in the path of the God. But if they turn back, seize them, and kill them wherever you find them. And do not take from them any ally nor helper.4:89
- In this verse we are told that those who did not emigrate (i.e. undertake the pilgrimage) were not allies of the prophet. The point to focus upon is that the believers had completed their emigration to their focal point.
- The narrative in totality treats of a rescue mission, which I credit Sam Gerrans under his footnotes of verse 10:102 (see: The Qur’an: A Complete Revelation). In other words, the submitted believers are heading back to rescue those who remained behind (i.e. those who did not emigrate and undertake the pilgrimage). In chapter 4:75-106, there is a rescue mission that is narrated to us as the believers then return to help their brethren who remained behind (i.e. those who visited or attended then left, and also those who never departed with the prophet from the outset). This is not something I have time to expound upon here in today’s article, but I have an aim to take a look into this in future, God willing.
Indeed, those whom the angels took while they are wronging themselves, they say: “in what condition were you?” They said: “we were oppressed in the land”. They say: “was the earth not spacious enough that you could have emigrated therein?” Then those, their abode is hell, and evil is it as a destination; except the oppressed among the men, the women, and the children who were unable to plan and were not directed to a way. Then those, it may be that the God will pardon them, indeed the God is pardoning, forgiving.4:97-99
- In these verses, we are told that there was no excuse to die a denier or die as one oppressed in the land. I surmise on that basis that the enemy who resided in the land from where the prophet started, had begun to persecute those who had remained behind, which explains this verse.
- Some who had not the means to emigrate may have been forgiven, whereas those who had the means and died a denier being oppressed in the land, for these, their habitation is hell.
And whoever emigrates in the way of the God will find in the earth a many place of refuge and abundance. And whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to the God and His messenger then death overtakes him, his reward is upon the God, and the God is forgiving, merciful.4:100
- This verse concerns those who emigrated with the prophet and believers as part of the rescue mission.
Indeed, those who emigrated and strove hard with their wealth and their lives in the path of the God, and those who gave shelter and helped, these are allies to one another. But those who believed and did not emigrate, not upon you is their protection in anything until they emigrate. And if they seek help in your system, then it is incumbent for you is to help them except against you and them is a treaty. And the God sees what you do. And those who deny, some of them are allies to one another. If you do not do it there will be tribulations in the land and great corruption.
And those who believed and emigrated and strove in the path of the God, and those who gave shelter, and helped, they are the believers in truth. For them is forgiveness and a noble reward.
And those who believed and emigrated afterwards and strove with you, then these are with you, but those of kinship are closer in the kitāb of the God. And the God knows all things.8:72-75
- In these verses we learn that the believers were victorious in their rescue mission.
- These verses do not apply to those who emigrate in the modern day from one city to another or one nation to another, these verses concern the people alive during the midst of revelation (although there are lessons to take from this narrative that we can apply to our lives today. However, pretending that these verses concern you is outlandish, to say the least).
The chapters and passages that I have selected, all demonstrate to us that much of the Qur’an is obsolete. The Qur’an axiomatically switches between universals and particulars – but all is addressed to the people alive during the midst of revelation.
A preponderance of the Qur’an, most notably chapter 2, 3, 4, and 8 are not addressed to me and you. It is incredibly outlandish and ignorant to pretend otherwise or seek to imitate those people.
Our interface with these chapters should not be done on a piecemeal basis, nor by following the Traditionalists erroneous literalistic hermeneutical interpretations of the Qur’an. We must not take these verses out of context. What we can do, is gain insight into the Law and philosophy of Truth if we seek to make some effort, apply ourselves by seeking to both learn and understand the parable, the philosophical postulate, the idiom, or decrees of the law of the Most High, for example.
Two Further Examples:
I cite two examples for you, chapter 2:62 and chapter 3:20.
2:62: “those who have believed, those who hold to Judaism, the Nazarenes, and the Sabians; whoso believes in the God, the last day, and works righteousness shall have their reward with their Lord, and they shall neither fear nor grieve.”
This verse does not apply to majority Jews, Christians, nor Sabians of today. Here are some facts for you. The Sabians no longer exist. The term Christian does not exist in the Qur’an. Christendom is not compatible with the Nazarene creed, nor can they be reconciled. Those who believe in the trinity are rendered idolaters. And the doctrines of the Jews and Nazarenes’ have undergone immense doctoring and change since this verse were revealed 1,400 years ago. This verse is often taken out of context by the liberal, Marxist, and Muslim apologist. The fact is there are many qualifications for one to meet these criteria which is not initially present within this particular set of verses. This is an example as to why one cannot approach the Qur’an under the impression that it is all addressing to you, because it is not – this only complicates matters for oneself and causes one to stray into error and vanity.
This is an example as to why you must read verses within its context.
3:20: “then if they argue with you, then say thou: I have submitted myself unto the God, and those who follow me. And say to those who were given the kitāb and the unschooled people: have you submitted yourselves? Then if they submit then certainly, they are guided.”
This verse addresses the Judeans (Jews), Nazarenes, and unschooled. These were men who had access to the word of God, His law and the philosophy. These were men who possessed the kitāb (record, writ, law). The unschooled are those who were not raised and taught the Torah, Tanakh, and Gospel. Obviously, to submit your countenance does not render you rightly guided.
Unfortunately, this is the issue today with some “Muslims” and “Qur’an alone” sects – they are totally ignorant of the previous revelations and decrees of the Most High. As was the case with verse 2:62 or the majority of Qur’anic verses for that matter, you must understand these within the context it sits.
Section 3: Chapter 9
This chapter does not begin with “In the Name Of God”, and in my view it is a continuation of the previous chapter. In chapter 8, the believers won a war, made treaties with those who surrendered from amongst the enemy and began to settle within the land.
- In these verses, a new battle and persecution of the enemy commences. I believe that this battle concerns the sacred temple that the believers left behind as they left with a rescue mission to help their brothers and sisters at their original place of origin.
- In verse 3 we hear of a term called the greater pilgrimage. In chapter 2 we learned about the pilgrimage. In this chapter, we learn of a new pilgrimage which the submitted believers took as begun to venture back to their city with their people wherein the sacred temple is located (al masjid al haram).
It is not for the idolaters to maintain the temples of the God, witnessing against themselves denial. These, their works are vain, and in the fire will they abide forever. Only those who maintain the temples of the God are those who believes in the God and the last day and performs the salat and gives the purity and fear not except the God. And it may be that these are among the rightly guided.9:17-18
- In this verse, the submitted believers are commanded to ban and prohibit the idolaters’ access to the sacred temple.
Do you make the giving of water to the pilgrims and maintenance of the sacred temple like one who believes in the God and the last day and strives in the path of the God? They are not equal with the God, and the God does not guide the wrongdoing people.9:19
- This verse regards the fact that those who both give water to the pilgrim and maintain the sacred temple are not like those who are in their stations ready to fight and strive in the cause of the God.
Verily, the God helped you in many places, and on the day of hunayn when your multitude impressed you, but they availed you nothing and the earth became straitened for you, as vast as it was, then you turned back and fled. Then the God sent down His tranquillity upon His messenger and on the believers and sent down forces that you did not see, and He punished those who denied. That is the recompense for the deniers.
Then the God accepted repentance after that for whom He wills. And the God is forgiving, merciful.
O you who have believed; indeed, the idolaters are unclean so do not let them come near the sacred temple after this, their year. And if you fear poverty then the God will soon enrich you from His bounty if He wills. Indeed, the God is knowing, wise.9:25-28
- In these verses, we learn that the submitted believers had lost the battle, but the God defeated them via forces which He sent down.
- The enemies were those amongst the Judeans and Nazarenes’ who did not follow their brethren in faith to submit and believe in the God and His messenger.
- In verse 9:28 through to end of the chapter, the believers continue to fight and strive against their enemy in the cause of the God.
- In verse 36 the prophet inveighed against the Jewish lunar calendar system.
- In verse 100, we learn of the first of the vanguard, the emigres and helpers regarding the pilgrimage and battle. It is said that God is pleased with them and they pleased with Him, and that they have a great achievement.
And those who took a temple for harm and rejection and division among the believers, and as a station for whoever warred against the God and His messenger before, and they will swear: “we did not wish except the good”. But the God bears witness that they indeed are liars. Do not stand in it ever. A temple founded upon cognisance from the first day is more worthy that you stand in it; within it are men who love to purify themselves and the God loves those who purify themselves. Then is one who founded his building on cognisance from the God and His pleasure better? Or one who laid the foundations of his building on the edge of a cliff about to collapse, so it collapsed with him into the fire of hell? And the God does not guide the wrongdoing people. Their building will not cease to be a scepticism in their hearts until their hearts are stopped. And the God is Knowing and Wise.9:107-110
- These verses regard the construction of temples of worship within their newly founded city.
Verily, the God turned in mercy to the prophet and the emigrants and the supporters and those who followed him in the hour of difficulty after the hearts of a party of them had almost inclined, and then He forgave them. Indeed, He is to them kind, merciful.
And towards the three who were left behind when the earth had become straitened for them though it was vast. And straitened for them was their souls, and they thought that there was no refuge from the God except to Him. Then He turned in mercy to them that they might repent. Indeed, the God is the Receptive, the Knowing.Qur’an
Verse 117 through to the end of chapter 9 conclude the narrative of pilgrimage and emigration.
These current events were well known to our fellow brothers and sisters that were alive during the midst of revelation! Nowhere from chapter 2 through to 9 is there any shred of information that could hint that this pilgrimage is to be replicated again. In fact, it is clear that the pilgrimage was centred around emigration to the new focal point with the submitted believers – the objective of the pilgrimage was completed.
It is impossible to divorce the pilgrimage from these current events without committing major fallacies. The entire series of events are interlinked and interrelated. This is an intricately interwoven narrative that cannot be divorced from one another (none can change the word of the God). There is an immense degree of guidance to be obtained from these narratives, but you miss the entire point of them if you are too busy focusing on what THEY DID – born alone, die alone, what ABOUT YOU!?
The believers’ pilgrimage and emigration also wrought with it tribulation, strife, struggle, hardship, as well as blessings, mercy and favour from the Lord of All Mankind.
Law giving also formed a major part of the prophets duty in these narratives too, as well as delivering warnings onto the Nazarene and Judean or Jewish ruling elite (who some may argue rule today, yet are unrecognisable due to their departure from the Ways of the Most High for some centuries).
As for us in the modern day and age, there is much to learn regarding the law and philosophy imparted to the prophet. For example, we may seek after the symbol as found in the archetypes relayed onto us; or the philosophical postulates pertaining to the God and His being or nature; or the moral and principle lesson; or the parable. But we are not to be mindlessly replicating nor seeking the revival an age old long-lost event that is 1,400 removed from us today. If this is all about proof and evidence, and there simply is no evidence to substantiate such ideas.
Section 4: Chapter 22
Indeed, those who have denied and hinder from the path of the God and the sacred temple which we made for the people equally; the devotee therein and the visitor, and whoever intends therein deviation or wrongdoing, We will make him taste a painful punishment.
And when we assigned to Ibrāhim the station of the house: do not ascribe a partnership with Me to anything and purify thou my house for those who move about it and those who stand and the lowly and the submitting.
And proclaim thou the pilgrimage to the people, they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come to you from every deep mountain highway, that they may witness things that benefit them. And mention the name of the God on days known over what He has provided them of livestock cattle.
So, eat of them and feed the misfortunate poor. Then let them end their prescribed rites and fulfil their vows and move about the ancient house, that, whoso honours the inviolable things of the God, then it is best for him in the sight of his Lord: and the cattle are lawful to you except what is being recited to you, so avoid the abomination of the idols and avoid the false speech.
Inclining to the God, not associating partners with Him. And whoever associates partners with then it is as though he had fallen from the sky and a bird snatched him away or the wind had blown him to a far-off place.
That, whoso honours the symbols of the God, then indeed it is from the prudence of their hearts. For you therein are benefits to an appointed term, then their place of sacrifice is the ancient house.22:25-33
- In these verses, there is no mention of the specific days that the prophet was commanded to remember the name of livestock over.
- We also see that the prophet is tasked with proclaiming the pilgrimage unto the people (his people). There is no such statement within the entire corpus of the Qur’an that declares the pilgrimage is to be repeated, or that there was more than one pilgrimage. The children of Israel understood this well, so too did the Jews with the exodus.
To Conclude Today’s Article
Hajj or pilgrimage was an event that occurred after the change of centre of activity or interest. This pilgrimage involved, war, battle, death, struggle, strife, tribulations, blessings, lessons, emigration. The multiple events are all context based and interrelated.
There is a strong concordance between the exodus and hajj; on both occasions were the children of Israel and submitters fleeing from evil, sin, oppression, tribulations, idolaters, and idolatry. On both occasions was war and battle a feature. On both occasions was the system of the God established within the newly founded lands. Any rites performed by the children of Israel, Nazarenes’ and Judeans performed in their lands was done at their sacred temple for their generations and people; the same holds true for the submitted believers.
I can further consolidate this with the fact that the children of Israel are the main concern, and that narratives of formers peoples were also relayed to them for those specific ends.
There is no shred of evidence that there exists a rite called hajj or pilgrimage that finds any purchase from the Qur’an. I invite you to read back over these chapters and verses, and my conclusions thereof.
If the entire organised religion of Islam has gotten this far by deceiving the people, I ask you as to what else and who else have been deceiving you into believing.
That is all for today.
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Peace and may God bless you,